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Gerund – Infinitive az angolban

Gerund - infinitive használata az angolban

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND (-ING FORM)

 

admit deny finish pardon
anticipate detest imagine postpone
appreciate dislike involve practise
avoid enjoy keep (continue) prevent
carry on escape loathe propose (suggest)
consider excuse mind (object) risk
delay fancy (imagine) miss suggest

 

AFTER, BEFORE and ALL THE PREPOSITIONS are followed by GERUND. We use the gerund after go + activity (especially sports).

 

All verb + preposition and verb + object + preposition are followed by gerund.

 

accuse sy of decide against give up succeed in
apologise for disapprove of go on suspect sy of
approve of dream of insist on thank sy for
be / get used to feel like look forward to think about / of
congratulate sy on forgive sy for stop sy from warn sy against

 

We also use the gerund after some phrases:

 

It’s no use It’s a waste of money spend (time)
It’s no good It’s a waste of time waste (of time /  money )
It’s (not) worth have difficulty There’s no point in
can’t help can’t stand be busy

 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE (TO + VERB)

 

afford consent force* persuade* teach*
agree decide get* (persuade) plan tell*
aim decline guarantee prepare tend
appear demand happen prove threaten
arrange deserve hesitate pretend undertake
ask** determine hope proceed volunteer
attempt be determined invite* promise** want**
be / be about enable* learn refuse warn*
beg** endeavour long remind* wish
care employ* manage resolve would hate**
choose expect** offer seem would like/love**
claim fail order* swear would prefer**

*   starred verbs are followed by an object + infinitive

** starred verbs can be used with or without an object

 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND   OR   OBJECT + INFINITIVE

 

advise allow encourage forbid permit recommend

 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY BARE INFINITIVE (WITHOUT TO)

 

dare help let make would rather

 

Note: ‘help’ and ‘dare’ can be used with or without to. ‘Make’ in the passive is followed by to + infinitive. With an object after ‘would rather’ we use Subjunctive.

 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

 

begin continue intend start
bother hate love prefer

 

 

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

forget like need regret stop
go on mean propose remember try

All the verbs of sensation (see, hear, feel, smell) can be followed by gerund or infinitive without to.

 

Meaning and examples:

forget + inf. = not to remember

E. g.: I forgot to lock the door. I have to go back.

forget + gerund = remember doing something in the past

E. g.: I will never forget meeting her for the first time.

 

go on + inf. = do or say something new

E. g.: After writing his homework he went on to learn the words.

go on + gerund = continue

E. g.: Don’t stop, please. Go on reading the next paragraph.

 

like + inf. = to think it is good and right

E. g.: I like to go to the dentist twice a year.

like + gerund = enjoy

E. g.: I like eating pizza.

 

mean + inf. = intend to do something

E. g.: I didn’t mean to hurt you yesterday. I just lost my temper.

mean + gerund = to have something else as a result

E. g.: Shopping in the Tesco means standing at the cashier for hours.

 

need + inf. = it is necessary for me to do something

E. g.: I need to go to the dentist.

need + gerund = something has to be done

E. g.: This room needs painting.

 

propose + inf. = intend to do something

E. g.: I propose to go to the dentist.

propose + gerund = suggest something

E. g.: He proposed going to an another restaurant.

 

regret + inf. = to feel sorry to tell or do ( first regret and then do)

E. g.: I regret to inform you that you failed the test.

regret + gerund = do it and then feel sorry (first do and then regret)

E. g.: I regretted asking him to cook dinner. It was awful.

 

remember + inf. = not to forget (first remember then do)

E. g.: Remember to turn the gas off before you leave.

remember + gerund = do something in the past and have the memories ( first do and then remember)

E. g.: I remember playing chess with my dad when I was a little.

 

stop + inf. = have a break to do something

E. g.: We stopped to smoke a cigarette then got back to the car and continued our trip.

stop + gerund = finish

E. g.: Yesterday I stopped smoking. I will never light a cigarette again.

 

try + inf. = make an effort or attempt

E. g.: I tried to open the box but it was locked.

try + gerund = do something as a new experiment or test

E. g.: I have a terrible headache. I think I’ll try taking an aspirin.

 

see, feel, hear, smell  + inf.  =  the whole action was noticed

E. g.: I saw him cross the road.

see, feel, hear, smell  +  gerund  = only a part of the action was noticed

E. g.: I saw him waiting in the bus stop.

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