VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND (-ING FORM)
|carry on||escape||loathe||propose (suggest)|
AFTER, BEFORE and ALL THE PREPOSITIONS are followed by GERUND. We use the gerund after go + activity (especially sports).
All verb + preposition and verb + object + preposition are followed by gerund.
|accuse sy of||decide against||give up||succeed in|
|apologise for||disapprove of||go on||suspect sy of|
|approve of||dream of||insist on||thank sy for|
|be / get used to||feel like||look forward to||think about / of|
|congratulate sy on||forgive sy for||stop sy from||warn sy against|
We also use the gerund after some phrases:
|It’s no use||It’s a waste of money||spend (time)|
|It’s no good||It’s a waste of time||waste (of time / money )|
|It’s (not) worth||have difficulty||There’s no point in|
|can’t help||can’t stand||be busy|
VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE (TO + VERB)
|be / be about||enable*||learn||refuse||warn*|
* starred verbs are followed by an object + infinitive
** starred verbs can be used with or without an object
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR OBJECT + INFINITIVE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY BARE INFINITIVE (WITHOUT TO)
Note: ‘help’ and ‘dare’ can be used with or without to. ‘Make’ in the passive is followed by to + infinitive. With an object after ‘would rather’ we use Subjunctive.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING
All the verbs of sensation (see, hear, feel, smell) can be followed by gerund or infinitive without to.
Meaning and examples:
forget + inf. = not to remember
E. g.: I forgot to lock the door. I have to go back.
forget + gerund = remember doing something in the past
E. g.: I will never forget meeting her for the first time.
go on + inf. = do or say something new
E. g.: After writing his homework he went on to learn the words.
go on + gerund = continue
E. g.: Don’t stop, please. Go on reading the next paragraph.
like + inf. = to think it is good and right
E. g.: I like to go to the dentist twice a year.
like + gerund = enjoy
E. g.: I like eating pizza.
mean + inf. = intend to do something
E. g.: I didn’t mean to hurt you yesterday. I just lost my temper.
mean + gerund = to have something else as a result
E. g.: Shopping in the Tesco means standing at the cashier for hours.
need + inf. = it is necessary for me to do something
E. g.: I need to go to the dentist.
need + gerund = something has to be done
E. g.: This room needs painting.
propose + inf. = intend to do something
E. g.: I propose to go to the dentist.
propose + gerund = suggest something
E. g.: He proposed going to an another restaurant.
regret + inf. = to feel sorry to tell or do ( first regret and then do)
E. g.: I regret to inform you that you failed the test.
regret + gerund = do it and then feel sorry (first do and then regret)
E. g.: I regretted asking him to cook dinner. It was awful.
remember + inf. = not to forget (first remember then do)
E. g.: Remember to turn the gas off before you leave.
remember + gerund = do something in the past and have the memories ( first do and then remember)
E. g.: I remember playing chess with my dad when I was a little.
stop + inf. = have a break to do something
E. g.: We stopped to smoke a cigarette then got back to the car and continued our trip.
stop + gerund = finish
E. g.: Yesterday I stopped smoking. I will never light a cigarette again.
try + inf. = make an effort or attempt
E. g.: I tried to open the box but it was locked.
try + gerund = do something as a new experiment or test
E. g.: I have a terrible headache. I think I’ll try taking an aspirin.
see, feel, hear, smell + inf. = the whole action was noticed
E. g.: I saw him cross the road.
see, feel, hear, smell + gerund = only a part of the action was noticed
E. g.: I saw him waiting in the bus stop.